Guide to Traditional Chinese Clothing – Hanfu

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Guide to Traditional Chinese Clothing - Hanfu

Hanfu (汉服), Chinese traditional costume, the full name of which is “traditional costume of Han nationality”. It is also known as Han Yiguan(汉衣冠), Han Zhuang (汉装) and Huafu (华服), which was formed from the reign of the Yellow Emperor to the middle of the 17th century (late Ming and early Qing dynasties), in the main residential areas of the Han nationality, with “Huaxia-Han” culture as the background and the dominant idea, and with the Chinese ceremonial culture as the center, through natural evolution, formed the unique style and character of the Han nationality, obviously different from the traditional clothing and accessories system of other nationalities.

This guide is classified according to the 1: basic feature of the Hanfu, 2: Hanfu shape & style, 3: Hanfu in different wearing scenes, 4: Hanfu in different dynasties, and the 5: related contents of Hanfu, so as to facilitate readers to understand and query.

 

Contents hide

 

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Basic Feature of the Hanfu

1.1: Basic Structure

  • Hanfu is cut from 50cm wide cloth and divided into parts: Ling (领, lǐng, collar), Jin(襟, jīn, placket), Ren (衽, rèn, overlapping part), Jin (衿, jīn or jìn), Ju (裾, jū), Xiu (袖, xiù, sleeves), Mei (袂, mèi), Dai (带, dài, belt), Fu (韨, fú), etc.

1.2: Three Basic Features of Hanfu

  • Crossed-collar with Right Pattern (交领右衽);
  • Restrain the waist by ropes (无扣结缨);
  • Loose clothes with long-wide sleeves (褒衣大袖).;
  • Hanfu mainstream typical features can be summarized as: “Ping(平)Zhong(中)Jiao(交)You (右), Kuan(宽)Tuan(褖)He(合)Ying(缨)”

1.3: Three Cutting Methods

  • Yichang Zhi (衣裳制, yī cháng zhì), in ancient times, the Yi (衣) refers to the upper garment, the Chang (裳) refers to the lower skirt, and the upper garment and lower skirt are worn separately, which is the most basic and orthodox form of the ancient Chinese clothing.
    • Shenyi Zhi (深衣制, shēn yī zhì), cut the Yi (衣) and Chang (裳) separating, and then sewing it together.
    • Tongcai Zhi (通裁制, tōng cái zhì), no seam between the upper garments and lower skirt, and they are cut straight.

 

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Hanfu Shape & Style

The single piece of Hanfu can be divided into seven categories:

2.1: Neiyi (内衣, nèi yī, underwear), 2.2: Zhongyi (中衣, zhōng yī), 2.3: Waiyi (外衣, wài yī, outwear), 2.4: Zhaoshan (罩衫, zhàoshān), 2.5: Shoufu (首服, shǒu fú, hat & headdress), 2.6: Zuyi (足衣, zú yī, shoes & socks), 2.7: Accessories (配件).

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2.1: Neiyi (内衣, nèi yī, underwear)

It refers to Hanfu worn close to the body, including Moxiong, Baofu (饱腹), etc. Some special styles, such as the Duijin Ruqun (对襟襦裙, parallel opening Ru skirt), require a Moxiong as an essential component.

    • Moxiong (抹胸, mò xiōng, old feminine garment, covering chest and abdomen);
    • more about Hanfu underwear.

2.2: Zhongyi (中衣, zhōng yī)

Zhongyi, also known as Liyi (里衣), is the shirt of Han Chinese clothing, which is used to match and support, worn between underwear and outerwear, like a shirt in a suit. Generally, it cannot be worn outside, but can be used as home wear and pajamas. When wearing a formal dress, must wear a Zhongyi, and the best effect can only be achieved with a Zhongyi for daily Hanfu style. Zhongyi is usually white, but other colors are also available. The collar edge should be slightly higher than the outerwear. Zhongyi includes:

  • Narrow sleeves Zhongyi (广袖中衣, worn with daily clothes for men and women);
  • Wide sleeve Zhongyi (窄袖中衣, worn with formal clothes for men and women);
  • Zhongku (中裤, pants for men and women);
  • Zhongqun (中裙, skirt for men and women);
  • Zhongdan (中单, for men and women).

2.3: Waiyi (外衣, wài yī, outwear)

The Waiyi is worn outside the Zhongyi. The Waiyi is the most important carrier of the characteristics and cultural significance of Hanfu. According to the wearing part and length, the Waiyi is divided into the long suit, upper garments, and lower garments:

  • 2.3.1: Chang zhuang (长装, cháng zhuāng, long suit)

    • 2.3.1.1: Shenyi (深衣, shēn yī)
      • Shenyi is a straight-length style Hanfu, characterized by a separate cut, sewn on top and bottom, length to the foot, with no slits at the sides. Shenyi is regarded as an important representative of Chinese clothing because of its rich cultural significance. Shenyi can be divided into:
      • Quju (曲裾, qǔ jū, for men and women);
      • Zhiju (直裾, zhí jū, for men and women);
        • Zhuzi Shenyi (朱子深衣, zhū zǐ shēn yī, for men), a kind of Zhiju, formal dresses, mostly used for sacrifice and other occasions;
      • Lanshan (襕衫*, lán shān, for men), a special form of Shenyi. In order to adhere to the Shenyi Zhi, the hemline reaches only to the knees, and then the fabric is joined to the back of the feet, and the edges are added to symbolize that the top and bottom of the garment are sewn together as one. The sides of the Lanshan are not split, worn mostly by scholars.
    • 2.3.1.2: Tongcai (通裁*, tōng cái)
      • Refers to the Hanfu style made by the Tongcai Zhi:
      • Yuanling Paoshan (圆领袍衫, yuán lǐng páo, round collar robe shirt, for men), as the name implies, the collar is rounded under the neck and tied at the right shoulder;
      • Zhiduo (直裰, zhí duō, for men). Zhiduo, Zhishen, and Daopao are long clothes with slits and rimmed collars. Zhiduo is characterized by slits at the sides. Zhiduo in the narrow sense has no hem. And sometimes Zhiduo is used historically to refer to Zhishen and Daopao;
      • Zhishen (直身, zhí shēn, for men), unlike the Zhiduo, the Zhishen has hem on the sides;
      • Daopao (道袍, dào páo, for men), not refer to the clothing worn by Taoist priest, but rather a style of Hanfu worn at home, features are the hem placed on the inside and sewn to the back lapel.
      • more about Chinese robe.
  • 2.3.2: Shang zhuang (上装, shàng zhuāng, upper garments)

    • 2.3.2.1: Ru (襦, rú)
      • Ru is a short top, the length is no longer than the knee and is worn with a skirt or pants, divided into Shan and Ao according to the number of layers:
      • Shan (衫, shān), usually single layer;
      • Ao (袄, ǎo), usually multi-layered.
    • 2.3.2.2: Long Ru (长襦)
      • Usually knee-length:
      • Zaju* (for women), also know as Guiyi (袿衣, guī yī), which needs to be worn with a Qun;
      • Long Ao (长袄, for women), the extended version of the Ao.
  • 2.3.3: Xia zhuang (下装, xià zhuāng, lower garments)

    • 2.3.3.1: Chang (裳, cháng)
      • Refer to a lower garment without a crotch (for men and women):
      • Qun (裙, qún, skirt), wear with the Ru, is the most common way for women to dress;
      • Weichang (帷裳, wéi cháng), the short Qun that worn over the Qun, not be worn alone;
      • Bixi (蔽膝, bì xī), was originally an ancient lower body garment that covered the thighs to the knees, later evolved into an accessory for formal dresses and cannot be worn alone.
    • 2.3.3.2: Ku (袴, kù)
      • Pants (for men and women).

2.4: Zhaoshan (罩衫, zhào shān)

Zhaoshan is the outermost Hanfu worn on the body. Men’s Zhaoshan can only be made informal clothes, women’s Zhaoshan can be made as formal dresses.

  • 2.4.1: Beizi (褙子, bèi zǐ)

    • for women, Duijin, large sleeves, and sometimes the long style Beizi is called a Daxiushan (大袖衫, big sleeves shirt) or Pifeng (披风, cape).
  • 2.4.2: Beixin (褙心*, bèi xīn) = Bijia (比甲, bǐ jiǎ)

    • for men and women, sleeveless, collarless vest with Duijin and slit at the sides and reaches below the knee.
  • 2.4.3: Banbi (半臂, bàn bì)

    • for men and women, also known as Banxiu (半袖, half-sleeve), developed from the Ru, a kind of cross-collar or Duijin short wear, characterized by sleeves up to the elbows and clothes up to the waist.
  • 2.4.4: Dachang (大氅, dà chǎng)

    • also known as Changyi (氅衣), worn only by men, characterized by Duijin and large sleeves, overall wide and laced, only for informal wear.
  • 2.4.5: Doupeng (斗篷, dǒu peng)

    • for men and women, a type of Zhaoshan that is sleeveless and ties around the neck, often worn over the shoulders to protect against the wind and cold.
  • 2.4.6: Danyi (襌衣, dān yī)

    • for men and women, a type of Zhaoshan, cross collar, and without lining. The material is mostly yarn and is lightweight.
  • 2.4.7: Dashan (大衫, dā shān)

    • for women, a Duijin large-sleeved Zhaoshan with slits at the sides, laces, or knots. The sleeves are exceptionally wide and are usually made for formal dresses only, paired with Gedai (革带, belt) and Fengguan Xiapei (凤冠霞帔).

2.5: Shoufu (首服, shǒu fú, hat & headdress)

Shoufu, also known as “Touyi (头衣, headwear)”, refers to the clothing worn on the head. Shoufu is an important manifestation of the cultural meaning of Chinese clothing, and many styles have a corresponding cultural story. Many headscarves and hats were invented by celebrities and have been passed down as representatives of certain cultural ideas, such as the Dongpo Jin invented by Su Dongpo, the Haoran Jin invented by Meng Haoran, etc. The different forms and use can be divided into Guanmian and Jinmao.

  • 2.5.1: Guanmian (冠冕, guān miǎn)

    • include Guan and Mian, for men and women, is generally suitable for formal and solemn occasions and is paired with a corresponding dress.
  • 2.5.2: Jinmao (巾帽, jīn mào)

    • include Jinze (巾帻, jīn zé, headscarves ) and Maozi (帽子, hats), for men and women.

2.6: Zuyi (足衣, zú yī, shoes & socks)

Refers to the outfits worn on the feet.

  • 2.6.1: Xie (鞋, xié, shoes)

    • for men and women, because the Hanfu dress is long enough to reach the ground, traditional shoes are often made the head of shoes is raised, such as Qiaotou Lǚ (翘头履).
  • 2.6.2: Xue (靴, xuē, boots)

    • for men and women, a long shoe that rises above the ankle.
  • 2.6.3: Muji (木屐, mù jī, clogs)

    • for men and women, a two-toothed wooden-soled shoe, the oldest Zuyi, used outdoors.
  • 2.6.4: Wa (袜, wà, socks)

    • for men and women, Hanfu socks are short white cloth socks with two fabric ribbons to hold in place and keep warm.

2.7: Accessories (配饰)

Refers to the ornaments in Hanfu that are easy to change and change position. Except for the belt, which is an essential part of the Hanfu, other accessories are worn according to the occasion and situation. There are many types of accessories, which can be divided into the following according to purposes:

  • 2.7.1: Sleeve part

    • Panbo (襻膊, pàn bó), also known as Bisheng (臂绳), it is a garment accessory that hangs between the neck and is used to tighten wide sleeves for easy handling.
  • 2.7.2: Waist part

    • Yaodai (腰带, yāodài, waist belt)
      • Yaodai is a waist garment piece. During the Zhou Dynasty, the belt was divided into Pan (鞶, pán) and Shen (绅, shēn) two major categories, to the Qin Dynasty, commonly known as the Yaodai. The belt in the Han, Tang, Song, Yuan dynasty are called Huandai (环带), Yaowei (腰围), Fuwei (腹围), Jiyao (系腰). Women’s belt said Qundai (裙带, skirt belt), in front of the waist in the middle or one side of the knot hanging down, more with cloth and silk production. Ancient Chinese belts also often combine with Yupei (玉佩) ornaments to become multi-colored waist ornaments.
    • Gedai (革带, gé dài)
      • made of leather.
    • Taodai (绦带, tāo dài)
      • made of silk fabric
    • Diexie (蹀躞, dié xiè)
      • a functional belt for storing items, mostly made of leather and metal, and is worn on the outside of the belt. It has a strong suspension function and can be used to hang a variety of items.
  • 2.7.3: Shoulders part

    • Pibo (披帛, pī bó)
        • for women, a long scarf draped over the shoulders and wrapped between the backs of the hands. Usually, make from thin gauze with a print on it, or a pattern woven from gold and silver threads.
    • Yunjian (云肩, yún jiān)
  • 2.7.4: Shoushi (首饰, shǒu shì, jewelry)

    • adornments wore on a person’s body, including the head, waist, hands, etc.
  • 2.7.5: Other accessories

    • Weimao(帷帽, wéi mào, face veils) ;
    • Shanzi (扇子, shàn zi, fan);
The style marked with * is still controversial. 
Not all styles of Hanfu are covered.

 

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Hanfu in Different Wearing Scenes

The third part focuses on the different functions and uses of Hanfu and its application in different application scenarios. As the traditional costume of the Han nationality, Hanfu has developed a huge system in thousands of years of history to meet the various needs of people in their lives. Hanfu is not all wide gowns and big sleeves as some people think, but actually, there are other styles that are suitable for modern life. Categorized into 3.1: formal dresses, 3.2: informal dresses, 3.3: Gongwu costumes, 3.4: monk’s costumes, 3.5: performance costumes, and 3.6: derivative costumes. ps: Derived costumes are not true Hanfu, but fashion dress or other costumes based on Hanfu.

3.1: Lifu (礼服, lǐ fú, formal dresses)

Lifu refers to the ceremonial clothing worn in formal gatherings, ceremonies, and other social occasions. According to the solemnity of the occasion, it can be divided into big formal dresses and small formal dresses.

  • 3.1.1: Da Lifu (大礼服, dà lǐ fú, big formal dresses)

Only worn on major ceremonial occasions. Da Lifu is, in principle, the highest expression of the cultural heritage of Hanfu. It is used only for major ceremonial occasions such as weddings, coming-of-age ceremony, graduation ceremonies, sacrificial rites, funerals, and so on.

    • 3.1.1.1: Hunli (婚礼, hūn lǐ, weddings)
      • At present, the three kinds of Hanfu wedding dresses with high recognition and wide practice are Han wedding dress, Tang wedding dress, and Ming wedding dress.
      • Han wedding dress (汉风婚服)
        • In a Han wedding, the bridegroom wore Xuanduan Juebian (玄端爵弁, xuán duān jué biàn) and the bride wore Chunyi Xunran (纯衣纁袡, chún yī xūn rán). Xuanduan is a kind of men’s Yichang Zhi big formal dresses, with black Yi and red Chang, which can be used for many ceremonial occasions. Juebian is the name of a kind of Guan (冠). Chunyi Xunran is a dark black garment with a light red rim, and Ran is the word for garment edge.
      • Tang wedding dress (唐风婚礼)
        • Tang wedding dress is a combination of solemn and sacred, and warm and festive. The most important feature is that men wear scarlet color, women wear green color. In the Tang wedding ceremony, the bridegroom wore Tang style Gongfu (公服, the uniform of old-time officials, Yichang Zhi), the bride wore Dianchai Liyi (钿钗礼衣), worn with layers of layered clothes and a Dashan (大衫) on the outside, wear headdresses such as Jincui (金翠), Huadian (花钿).
      • Ming wedding dress (明风婚礼)
        • In the Ming wedding ceremony, the bridegroom wore Ming-style Gongfu (Tongcai Zhi), the bride wore Fengguan Xiapei (凤冠霞帔, fèng guàn xiá pèi), usually wears Dashan (or Yuanlingpao) and Xiapei (long striped accessories) with a FengGuan (phoenix crown).
    • 3.1.1.2: Chengren Li (成人礼, chéng rén lǐ, coming-of-age ceremony)
      • According to the traditional ritual system, the coming-of-age ceremony for men is the Guan Li, and for women is the Ji Li.
      • Guan Li (冠礼, guàn lǐ)
        • The big formal dresses used in Guan Li are Bianfu (弁服) or Gongfu.
      • Ji Li (笄礼, jī lǐ)
        • The big formal dresses used in Ji Li are Shenyi or Dashan.
    • 3.1.1.3: Graduation ceremonies (毕业典礼)
      • The degree uniform is the formal dress worn by the degree recipient at the degree conferment ceremony to indicate the degree. There are three types of degree uniforms: bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral. Each degree uniform consists of six parts, including the degree crown (black Bian), the degree coma, the degree collar (six different colors), the degree dress (Shenyi or Xuanduan), the degree dress emblem, and western-style leather shoes.
    • 3.1.1.4: Ji Li (祭礼, jì lǐ, sacrificial rites)
      • Ji Fu (祭服, jì fú), refers to the big formal dresses worn during sacrificial rites. There is no strict dress code for private or family sacrificial rites. There are Xuanduan and Ming-style Ji Fu for men, Tuanyi (褖衣) for women. Ming-style Ji Fu is made up of a Liang Guan (梁冠), a dark blue Yi, and a red Chang. Tuanyi is made of black, with a plain (white) Zhongyi, and is Shenyi Zhi with a red edge.
    • 3.1.1.5: Sang Li (丧礼, sàng lǐ)
      • Sang Fu, (丧服, sàng fú), also known as Xiaofu (孝服), it refers to the dress worn by the relatives of the deceased during the funeral ceremony according to their affinity with the deceased. From ancient times to the present, Sang Fu has evolved and mutated, but it still maintains its original customization and is divided into five classes according to the workmanship, and the length of the cycle: Zhancui (斩衰), Zicui (齐衰), Dagong (大功), Xiaogong (小功), Sima (缌麻).
  • 3.1.2: Xiao Lifu (小礼服, xiǎo lǐ fú, small formal dresses)

Also known as Chang Lifu (常礼服, regular formal dresses), it is a dress used for formal social occasions such as banquets, festivals, and cultural events.

3.2: Changfu (常服, cháng fú, informal dresses)

Changfu refers to the Hanfu clothing suitable for daily work and home. The main function is to work professional dress and life informal dress.

  • 3.2.1: Work professional dress

    • For example, used in the catering, education, and tea ceremony industries.
  • 3.2.2: Life informal dress

    • Hanfu used for casual wear, home wear, and pajamas.

3.3: Gongwu costumes (弓武服饰, gōng wǔ, )

  • 3.3.1: Gongqi clothing (弓骑服饰)

    • refers to clothing worn in sports such as archery and mounted.
  • 3.3.2: Martial Arts costumes (武术服饰)

    • Wushu (武术, martial arts) is a traditional Chinese sport. Martial arts have an extremely broad mass base. For thousands of years, the Hanfu has always been the costume that best reflects the spirit of martial arts in China. The martial arts costumes in Hanfu are usually Shuhe (裋褐), upper garment and lower pants, and narrow sleeves tops, to facilitate various movements.

3.4: Sengdao costumes (僧道服饰, sēng dào, monk’s costumes)

After Buddhism was introduced to China, it was gradually localized. Except for the formal vestments, which are still the Indian monk’s clothes, the clothing worn in daily life is basically based on the Hanfu with slight modifications. Taoism is the original religion of China, and the costumes are basically the same as ordinary Hanfu, except that the patterns are more Taoist, such as Taiji (太极) and Bagua (八卦) patterns drawn on the robes.

3.5: Performance costumes (表演服饰)

Refers to the Hanfu used for performance, characterized by the pursuit of stage effect, and different from the daily wear Hanfu in the shape. Some performance costumes in the shape of Hanfu, but in fact belongs to the stage fashion, has been separated from the scope of the Hanfu.

  • 3.5.1: Dancewear

    • Costumes are worn in music and dance performances, such as the Han dance (汉舞). Han dance has a long and varied history, including classical Han and Tang dances and Han folk dances.
  • 3.5.2: Chinese Opera costumes

    • Chinese Opera is a long-established comprehensive stage art style. It consists of literature, music, dance, art, martial arts, acrobatics, and performing arts, and has a wide variety. For historical reasons, Hanfu has been preserved as performance costumes in most of the operas, while the costumes of some operas have incorporated elements of other ethnic groups.

3.6: Derivative costumes (汉服衍生服饰)

Derived costumes are costumes that are derived from the basic elements of the Hanfu, or costumes that contain elements of the Hanfu, which are no longer part of the Hanfu and cannot be considered part of the Hanfu.

  • 3.6.1: Film, TV Drama, comics, game costume

    • In modern society, Hanfu is often seen in mass media, some of these costumes conform to the basic form features of Hanfu that can be regarded as Hanfu, while most of them have been greatly modified to achieve the visual effect desired by artists.
  • 3.6.2: Han Element costume

    • Han Elemental Costume is a free creation without fixed norms based on preserving the charm and characteristics of Hanfu, or a derivative costume by adding elements of Hanfu to other costumes besides Hanfu. Although it has the Han style, it does not belong to the Hanfu in essence.

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Hanfu in Different Dynasties

The third part of the article is mainly to organize the classic styles of Hanfu clothing according to the timeline of ancient China, covering Han dynasties, Wei, Jin, North and South dynasties, Sui, and Tang dynasties, Song dynasties, and Ming dynasties.

4.1: Han dynasties

  • Quju (曲裾): The top and bottom are cut separately, and then sewn together. Ju refers to the skirt edge, the shape is not straight, the placket can be rotated around to the back of the body, the sleeve shape is mostly straight sleeves and Chuihu sleeves (垂胡袖).
  • Zhiju (直裾): The upper body is the same as the Quju. The Ju of a Zhiju is flat and the form is vertical and downward.
  • Zhiju Danyi (直裾单衣)
  • Qun (裙): one-piece pleat-less skirt, made of four pieces of fabric pieced together.

4.2: Wei, Jin, North and South dynasties

  • Ru (襦): the lower part is fitted with a Yaolan (腰襕), with no slit at the sides, and the sleeves are straight sleeves, narrow sleeves, Chuihu sleeves, and Laba sleeves (喇叭袖).
  • Quling Shan (曲领衫, qǔ lǐng shān): the neckline is curved and rounded.
  • Banxiu (半袖, bàn xiù): the sleeves are edged and have a splice Yaolan.
  • Xiyi (褶衣, xí yī): Duijin (对襟, parallel opening), Laba sleeves, without Yaolan, pair more with Ku (袴) and Liangdang (裲裆, liǎng dāng, the vest-like garment of the Northern and Southern Dynasties).
  • Poqun (破裙, pò qún): assembled from multiple right-angled trapezoidal skirt pieces. A Poqun made up of X skirt pieces is called an “X Poqun”, and women’s skirts are more often inter-color, while men’s skirts are more often solid colors.

4.3: Sui and Tang dynasties

  • Shan / Ao (衫/袄): round collar or straight collar, Shan is single layer, Ao is multi-layered.
  • Beizi (背子, bèi zǐ): women’s clothing, often worn on the outer layer of Shanzi (衫子), mostly sleeveless.
  • Tanling (坦领, tǎn lǐng)
  • Banbi (半臂): crossed collar, short sleeves.
  • Yuanlingpao (圆领袍)
    • Lanpao (襕袍, lán páo): no slits at the sides. The hem of the garment is pieced together with a Henglan (横襕).
    • Quekua Pao (缺胯袍, quē kuà páo): slit at the crotch for easy riding, without Henglan at the hem.
    • Qun (裙)
      • one-piece skirt, right-angle trapezoid patchwork, solid color, or inter-color.

4.4: Song dynasties

  • 4.4.1: Women’s clothing in the Song dynasty

    • Duijin Shan (Ao): divided into short Shan and long Shan, Duijin and straight collars, short Shan is not longer than the knee, long shirts are above the knee, and there are narrow or wide sleeves.
    • Beizi (褙子): was edged with lace, to be worn with Qun, length to the foot.
    • Daxiushan (大袖衫): short in front and long in back, with a Sanjiao Dou (三角兜): a triangular shape used to hold Xiapei on the back.
    • Moxiong (抹胸)
    • Beixin (褙心): Duijin, sleeveless or short-sleeved, can be worn alone or out.
  • 4.4.2: Lower clothing in the Song dynasty

    • Kun (裈, kūn): with the crotch, single layer, wear in the innermost layer.
    • Ku (袴, kù): without the croth, is designed to keep warm, wear outside the Kun.
    • Dang (裆, dāng): with the crotch, side slits, an outer layer of pants.
    • Baidie Qun (百迭裙, bǎi dié qún): one-piece pleat skirt, narrow at the top, wide at the bottom, trailing skirt length at the back piece, with Lifu.
    • Liangpian Qun (两片裙, liǎng piàn qún): one-piece pleat-less skirt, two skirt pieces are sewn to the same skirt waist, with the middle part of the skirt pieces overlapping and not sewn together.
    • SanJian Qun (三裥裙, sān jiǎn qún): Four trapezoidal skirts pieces stitched together.
  • 4.4.3: Men’s clothing in the Song dynasty

    • Duijin Shan (Ao)
    • Jiaoling Long Shan (Ao): long, wide sleeves, and side slits.
    • Beizi: wide sleeves, length to the foot
    • Yuanlingpao:
      • Kuipao (䙆袍, kuì páo): straight sleeves, hem without Henglan, for officials to wear in ordinary and private places, and people generally wear. It can be divided into left and right slit and back slit two kinds, left and right slit is the development of the Tang Dynasty Quekua Pao.
      • Lanpao = Gongfu(襕袍=公服, lán páo): big sleeves, hem with Henglan.

4.5:  Ming dynasties

  • 4.5.1: Women’s clothing in the Ming dynasty

    • Zhiling (直领, zhí lǐng): straight collar, divided into Zhiling Duijin Shan (Ao), Zhiling Dajin Shan (Ao).
    • Shuling/ Liling (竖领/立领, shù lǐng/lì lǐng): vertical collar/stand collar, divided into Shuling Duijin Shan (Ao), Shuling Dajin Shan (Ao).
    • Yuanling (圆领, yuán lǐng): round collar, divided into Yuanling Duijin Shan (Ao), Yuanling Dajin Shan (Ao), and Yuanling Duijin Pi Ao.
    • Fangling (方领, fāng lǐng): square collar, such as Fangling Duijin Pi Ao.
    • Pifeng (披风): Duijin and straight collar, side slits, developed from the Song Dynasty Beizi.
    • Daxiu Shan
    • Bijia (比甲)
    • Zhuyao (主腰, zhǔ yāo): women’s underwear.
  • 4.5.2: Skirt in the Ming dynasty

    • Mamian Qun (马面裙, mǎ miàn qún): the Mamian Qun is a structure of two separate skirts body with a common skirt waist, which is thought to have originated from the Song Dynasty Liangpian Qun.
      • Mamian Qun with narrow skirt door
      • Mamian Qun with wide skirt door
      • Mamian Qun with pleated door
  • 4.5.3: Men’s clothing in the Ming dynasty

    • Tieli (贴里, tiē lǐ): straight collar and Dajin (大襟), top and bottom cut separately, pleated hem, no hem on both sides.
    • Yesan (曳撒, yè sān): the same shape as Tieli, no pleats at the back, with the hem on both sides.
    • Zhiduo (直裰, zhí duō): slit on both sides, no hem on both sides.
    • Daopao (道袍, dào páo): Jiaoling Youren, with the hem on the inside, knee-length.
    • Zhishen (直身, zhí shēn): the same shape as Daopao, but with the hem on the outside.
    • Pifeng (披风)
    • Changyi (氅衣)
    • Yuanlingpao (圆领袍): round collar, Dajin, with the hem on both sides.
    • Lanshan (襕衫): round collar, Dajin, side slits with the hem on both sides, dark full-edge edges.
    • Shanao (衫袄): for inside wear
    • Dahu (褡护, dā hù): short or sleeveless, with hem on both sides, can be worn inside or out.
1. Sorted out based on sources, not all styles of Hanfu are covered. 
2. Individual Hanfu styles span different dynasties, and some styles of Hanfu had 
different variations in the same dynasty, not described in detail in this part.
 
3. If there are any omissions or errors, feel free to let us know via email.

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